OntologiesPANTHER uses the Gene Ontology TM for classifications by molecular function, biological process and cellular component. The PANTHER Protein Class ontology was adapted from the PANTHER/X molecular function ontology, and includes commonly used classes of protein functions, many of which are not covered by GO molecular function. Download the classes and relationship information.
Molecular function is the function that a protein performs on its direct molecular targets; e.g. the insulin receptor has transmembrane receptor tyrosine protein kinase activity (GO:0004714), which means it catalyzes the reaction that adds a phosphate group to a tyrosine in another protein (its target).
Cellular component is the location where the protein performs its molecular function; e.g. the insulin receptor is located in the plasma membrane (GO:0005886).
Biological process covers the biological systems to which a protein contributes; e.g. the insulin receptor is involved in regulation of carbohydrate metabolic process (GO:0006109).
PANTHER uses only a subset of GO terms (“GO slim”) to facilitate browsing. Download the PANTHER GO slim.
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Browse molecular function and biological process terms to retrieve genes and gene products.